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Purpose of lumbar puncture

Pediatric lumbar puncture

Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap): Purpose, Benefits, and Mor

  1. A lumbar puncture can help your doctor accurately diagnose or rule out certain medical conditions, including some life-threatening illnesses. The quicker they make a diagnosis, the sooner you can..
  2. A spinal tap may be performed to rule out infections such as meningitis or encephalitis as the cause of epileptic seizures
  3. A lumbar puncture may be done for various reasons. The most common reason is to remove a small amount of CSF for testing. This can help in the diagnosis of various disorders. The fluid is tested for red and white blood cells, protein, and glucose (sugar)
  4. Currently, a lumbar puncture is the only definitive way to diagnose meningitis and what is causing it. This helps guide treatment and a confirmed diagnosis can help patients left with after-effects access the help they need. The quicker a lumbar puncture is performed when meningitis is suspected, the more likely it is that a cause will be found
  5. ister spinal anaesthesia before surgery in the lower half of the body. 2
  6. A spinal tap is commonly used to diagnose potentially life-threatening infections of the central nervous system. Meningitis (the inflammation of the membranes around the brain and spinal cord) is the most common reason for a lumbar puncture

Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap): Purpose, Procedure, Risks

A lumbar puncture, also called a spinal tap, is a procedure doctors use to remove and test some of this liquid, called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It helps them diagnose disorders of the brain and.. Summary: Assuming the patient has no contraindications and the patient has given consent (assuming it is not an emergency), the following information will describe the steps involved to complete a lumbar puncture for the purpose of measuring the opening pressure and/or obtaining cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Lumbar Puncture Johns Hopkins Medicin

  1. A large volume lumbar puncture is a special kind of lumbar puncture (spinal tap) specifically intended to remove 30 to 40 ml of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to both assess and temporarily relieve symptoms of hydrocephalus. Why It Is Performe
  2. A lumbar puncture may be used to: take a sample of fluid from your spinal cord (cerebrospinal fluid) or measure the fluid's pressure - to help diagnose a condition inject medicine - such as painkillers, antibiotics or chemotherapy inject a spinal anaesthetic (epidural) - to numb the lower part of your body before an operatio
  3. Lumbar puncture (LP), also known as a spinal tap, is a medical procedure in which a needle is inserted into the spinal canal, most commonly to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for diagnostic testing. The main reason for a lumbar puncture is to help diagnose diseases of the central nervous system, including the brain and spine
  4. e the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord (cerebral spinal fluid)
  5. A lumbar puncture — also known as a spinal tap — is used to collect the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounding the brain and spinal cord to detect disease, infection or injury. A lumbar puncture can tell doctors whether blood cancer cells are present in the sample

What is a lumbar puncture? Meningitis Research Foundatio

Lumbar puncture is a procedure that is often performed in the emergency department to obtain information about the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Although usually used for diagnostic purposes to rule out potential life-threatening conditions (eg, bacterial meningitis or subarachnoid hemorrhage), it is also sometimes used for therapeutic purposes. Purpose. Lumbar puncture, or spinal tap, is used to diagnose some malignancies, such as certain types of brain cancer and leukemia, as well as other medical conditions that affect the central nervous system. It is also used for injecting chemotherapy directly into the CSF. This type of treatment is called intrathecal therapy

Lumbar Puncture - Purpose, site of lumbar puncture

<p>A lumbar puncture, also called a spinal tap, is a procedure that takes a sample of your child's cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which surrounds the brain and spinal cord. Doctors perform a lumbar puncture to see if leukemia has spread into the central nervous system (CNS) lumbar puncture: [ lum´bahr ] pertaining to the loins . lumbar puncture introduction of a hollow needle into the subarachnoid space of the spinal canal, usually between the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae; see also cisternal puncture . Called also spinal puncture . It may be done for diagnostic purposes to determine the pressure within the.

Lumbar Puncture — Taming the SRU

The doctor will locate a puncture site in the lower back, between two vertebrae, then clean the area and inject a local anesthetic. You may feel a slight stinging sensation from this injection. Once the anesthetic has taken effect, the doctor will insert a special needle into the spinal sac and collect a small amount of fluid (usually about. The lumbar puncture debate would be a lot easier if the test always gave us a precise answer. Sure, some lumbar punctures are difficult, and they always take a bit of time, but emergency physicians love procedures. Unfortunately, the results of the LP are too often uncertain. We are searching for blood, but traumatic taps, where blood is. A lumbar puncture, or spinal tap, is used to collect CSF for culture. A physician will insert a needle into the space between two vertebrae in the lower spine

Lumbar puncture: If you have a type of leukemia or lymphoma that has a tendency to spread to the nervous system, it is likely that you received a lumbar puncture, or spinal tap as part of your diagnosis.This is very similar to what you will experience while getting intrathecal chemotherapy. Your oncologist or hematologist will perform a lumbar puncture, and inject the chemotherapy directly. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Lumbar puncture (LP) is a key diagnostic procedure in medicine. Post lumbar puncture headache (PLPHA) is a well recognized complication of LP. Evidence suggests that using atraumatic needles for diagnostic LP (ATNLP) reduces risk of PLPHA

Modified lumbar drainage

Objective: To determine whether informed consent is adequately obtained by documentation of appropriate risks, benefits, alternatives, and procedure explanation for children who had a lumbar puncture (LP) in a pediatric emergency department (PED). Methods: Authors agreed on the criteria for appropriate informed consent for LP, including risks and benefits of the procedure, alternatives to. Background and purpose: Lumbar punctures may be performed by many different types of health care providers. We evaluated the percentages of lumbar punctures performed by radiologists-versus-nonradiologist providers, including changes with time and discrepancies between specialties During a lumbar puncture (also known as a spinal tap), a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is extracted from the spinal (vertebral) canal using a special needle. Analyzing the cerebrospinal fluid in a laboratory can help detect diseases of the brain and spinal cord

Uses, Side Effects, and Procedure of a Spinal Ta

Spinal Tap & Lumbar Puncture for MS Diagnosis: Purpose

INTRODUCTION — Lumbar puncture (LP) with examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an important diagnostic tool for a variety of infectious and noninfectious neurologic conditions.. The techniques, indications, contraindications, and complications of LP in adults will be reviewed here. Technique of LP in children and for spinal and other types of neuraxial anesthesia is discussed separately Lumbar puncture is frequently performed in primary care. Properly interpreted tests can make cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) a key tool in the diagnosis of a variety of diseases

INDICATIONS. There are many indications for Lumbar Puncture (Table 1), but obtaining CSF may be the only way of confirming or refuting subarachnoid haemorrhage, meningitis and neuro-inflammatory diseases.Lumbar Puncture is still required to obtain indirect measurements of intracranial pressure, although non-invasive methods of intracranial pressure estimation are undergoing validation. Fluoroscopically guided lumbar puncture (LP) is performed in the department of radiology, often by members of the division of diagnostic neuroradiology. Although there are many articles that discuss the technique of LP, few discuss the procedure from the radiologist's perspective. The goal of this article is to review the methods of. Lumbar Puncture introduction of a specialized needle into the spine in the lumbar region for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose, such as to obtain cerebrospinal fluid for testing;also called spinal ta If CNS infection is in the differential diagnosis, consider a lumbar puncture (after appropriate head imaging to ensure safety). Initiate antibiotic therapy if CNS or systemic infection is.

Epidural Injections, Nerve Blocks And Facet BlocksCerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Protein Test: Preparation and

Summary. A lumbar puncture is a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in which a spinal needle is passed into the subarachnoid space.It enables drainage or collection of cerebrospinal fluid as well as administration of intrathecal medications. CSF analysis may aid in the diagnosis of meningitis, multiple sclerosis, intracranial hemorrhage, or meningeal carcinomatosis A spinal tap (lumbar puncture) is done first. Small amounts of radioactive material, called a radioisotope, are injected into the fluid within the spine. The needle is removed immediately after the injection. You will then be scanned 1 to 6 hours after getting the injection

Procedure: How to Do a Lumbar Puncture - EBM Consul

The lumbar puncture is performed below the end of the spinal cord where there are small strands of nerves. Sometimes, the needle can make contact with a small vein, causing a traumatic tap Spinal tap is also referred to as a lumbar puncture, or LP. To evaluate for uncommon diagnoses such as multiple sclerosis, Lyme disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and several others. Cerebrospinal fluid is a liquid that bathes the brain and spinal cord. An adult has about 140 mL (just under 5 oz) of spinal fluid Lumbar puncture with fluid collection may also be part of other procedures such as an x-ray or CT scan after dye has been inserted into the CSF. Rarely, other methods of CSF collection may be used. Cisternal puncture uses a needle placed below the occipital bone (back of the skull). It can be dangerous because it is so close to the brain stem But when a neurological exam and MRI aren't conclusive, a spinal tap, also known as a lumbar puncture, is sometimes done to help confirm — or substantiate — an MS diagnosis,. A lumbar puncture (sometimes called a spinal tap) is a procedure where a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is taken for testing. CSF is the fluid that surrounds the brain (cerebrum) and spinal cord. This test is mainly used to diagnose meningitis (an infection of the meninges - the structure that surrounds the brain and spinal cord)

Large Volume Lumbar Puncture Procedures Johns Hopkins

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless liquid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. While the primary function of CSF is to cushion the brain within the skull and serve as a shock absorber for the central nervous system, CSF also circulates nutrients and chemicals filtered from the blood and removes waste products from the brain
  2. A lumbar puncture is a procedure used to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF is a clear, protective fluid that flows around the brain and inside the spinal canal. A lumbar puncture is usually done to check for an infection, inflammation, bleeding, or other conditions that affect the brain
  3. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is limited evidence to support the use of high-volume lumbar taps over lower-volume taps in the diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus. The purpose of this study is to detect whether the volume of CSF removed from patients undergoing high-volume diagnostic lumbar tap test for normal pressure hydrocephalus is significantly associated with post-lumbar tap gait.
  4. Spinal tap: Also known as a lumbar puncture or LP, a spinal tap is a procedure whereby spinal fluid is removed from the spinal canal for the purpose of diagnostic testing. It is particularly helpful in the diagnosis of inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, especially infections, such as meningitis.It can also provide clues to the diagnosis of stroke, spinal cord tumor and.
  5. ed under a microscope in a laboratory. A lumbar puncture is sometimes used to check for cancer cells in the CSF. This can help to diagnose some cancers, or give more.
  6. Lumbar puncture (LP) is an important and frequently performed invasive procedure for the diagnosis and management of neurological conditions. There is little in the neurological literature on the topic of periprocedural management of antithrombotics in patients undergoing LP. Current practice is therefore largely extrapolated from guidelines produced by anaesthetic bodies on neuraxial.
  7. A lumbar puncture may also be used to deliver medicine both inside and outside the spinal cord. This includes numbing drugs during childbirth (epidural anesthesia) and certain types of chemotherapy. 1-3. Lumbar puncture and MS. Lumbar punctures are not always needed to diagnose MS. But they can be helpful when the diagnosis of MS is less clear

Lumbar puncture - NH

Background and purpose: Fluoroscopic-guided lumbar puncture is an effective alternative to bedside lumbar puncture in challenging patients. However, no published guidelines are available for an acceptable range of fluoroscopic time for this procedure. The purpose of this study was to set department benchmark fluoroscopic times for lumbar. Background and purpose Lumbar puncture (LP) may precipitate cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), but it is unclear if LP is deleterious in patients with CVT. We aimed to assess the safety of LP in the International Study on Cerebral Veins and Dural Sinus Thrombosis prospective cohort BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Prior research has shown substantial shifts in procedure shares between specialty groups providing lumbar punctures. Our aim was to analyze national trends in lumbar punctures among the Medicare population from 2010 to 2018. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medicare Part B Physician/Supplier Procedure Summary Master Files from 2010 to 2018 were analyzed for all Current Procedural.

Post-lumbar puncture headache, which is more precisely termed PDPH, is the most common complication of lumbar puncture, occurring in up to 40 % of patients after diagnostic lumbar puncture. 28 The headache begins within 48 hours in about 80 % and within 72 hours in about 90 % of patients.66, 75 The onset can be immediately after the lumbar. 1. Answer the following questions about lumbar punctures: a) What is the purpose of a lumbar puncture (What is being sampled and why is this Wisrsprehrough to ge towhere you need to be to procedure performed)? perform a lumbar puncture? Begin with the space outside the most superficial meninges layer of the spinal cord The purpose was to report the results of ultrasound‐guided lumbar puncture for the administration of nusinersen in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) patients with complex spines. Methods Eighteen SMA patients (five children, five adolescents and eight adults) with either severe scoliosis or spondylodesis were evaluated for ultrasound‐guided. lumbar puncture opening pressure reflects ICP. For patients who are lying in a supine position, the opening pressure of the lumbar puncture is a validated measurement of intracranial pressure. (17210899, 9115655) Note that pressure is initially measured in cm of water. This needs to be divided by 1.36 to convert to mm of mercury Nerve injury occurring at the time of the lumbar puncture can result in shooting pain into the buttocks or down the leg and may persist as a dull ache or resolve over days to weeks. Bleeding around the fluid sac. Bleeding into the space around the fluid sac is uncommon, but can produce weakness in one or both legs, persistent back pain and.

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis: Definition Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is a laboratory test to examine a sample of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord. This fluid is a clear, watery liquid that protects the central nervous system from injury and cushions it from the surrounding bone structure. It contains a variety of. Lumbar Puncture - Purpose. The procedure is the cornerstone for confirming certain neurological conditions such as meningitis. After collecting samples of cerebrospinal fluid, its pressure is measured with a column manometer and it is further examined microscopically. It is essential to evaluate the concentration of certain substances (such as. Definition and Purpose. Lumbar puncture is a medical procedure that includes insertion of a needle into the subarachnoid space in the area of lumbar spine. This way the cerebrospinal liquid is obtained and can be further investigated. Basically the lumbar puncture is done in case that doctor suspect on meningitis

Lumbar puncture - Wikipedi

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, watery liquid that flows around the brain and spinal cord, surrounding and protecting them. CSF testing is performed to evaluate the level or concentration of different substances and cells in CSF in order to diagnose conditions affecting the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system).CSF is produced and secreted by the choroid plexus, a special tissue.
  2. Select CSF lumbar puncture, CSF shunt, or CSF ventricular trap as source to ensure appropriate culturing. If cryptococcal meningitis is suspected, fungal cultures (LAB240) and cryptococcal antigen (LAB2233) should be ordered as well. The Meningitis/Encephalitis PCR Panel (LAB8514) should be ordered on all lumbar punctures where infections.
  3. Lumbar puncture is an important procedure to access and assess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Traumatic lumbar puncture is a common inadvertent consequence whereby peripheral blood is introduced into the CSF thereby distorting the true cell counts. The CSF correction of white blood cell count (WBC) equation was derived to reflect the true CSF WBC.
  4. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lumbar puncture (LP) is a key diagnostic procedure in medicine. Post-lumbar puncture headache (PLPHA) is a well-recognized complication of LP. Evidence suggests that using atraumatic needles for diagnostic LP (ATNLP) reduces the risk of PLPHA. However, clinicians in Europe and the USA routinely use traumatic needles for.
  5. Lumbar punctures were performed by a trained, physician with a 25G atraumatic lumbar puncture needle (Braun, 25G) under supervision of an experienced neurologist. The needle was placed at the L3-L4 or L4-L5 interspace with the subject in supine or sitting position

Lumbar Puncture Procedure Side Effects, Pain & Complication

  1. The purpose of the Lumbar Puncture is to obtain cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) for analysis, pressure, or culture. The purpose of the Baclofen Trial is to access the response of muscle stiffness to the agent prior to implanting a pump. The Purpose of the Baclofen Refill injection is to maintain the pump and reduce muscle stiffness
  2. M43B-B Lumbar Puncture Simulator IIA Training set. Quote. 11348-160. Supporting stand (Two way) Quote. World's best training simulator for lumbar puncture and epidural anesthesia / New stable supporting stand for one person and team training scenarios/ Five types of puncture blocks enhance training with different types of challenges. Spinal tap
  3. ation with peripheral blood. A three-drug regimen is generally adequate for this purpose 1).
  4. About this study. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) block with lidocaine vs. SPG block with placebo in preventing the need for epidural blood patch (EBP) in women who develop post dural puncture headache (PDPH) after accidental puncture during placement of lumbar epidural anesthesia (LEA) for labor
  5. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) block with lidocaine vs. SPG block with placebo in preventing the need for epidural blood patch (EBP) in women who develop post dural puncture headache (PDPH) after accidental puncture during placement of lumbar epidural anesthesia (LEA) for labor
  6. If no mass lesion is detected on MRI, a lumbar puncture can be performed to assess the opening pressure of the CSF and to obtain CSF for analysis to rule out neoplastic and infectious etiologies

Lumbar Puncture Leukemia and Lymphoma Societ

Purpose To determine the significance of lumbar puncture in diagnosis of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH). Method A retrospective analysis was conducted on 116 consecutive patients diagnosed with VKH. Two additional patients who presented with acute VKH were included in the analysis. Demographic characteristics, including gender, age, and ethnicity, were extracted from the medical record. 1. THE WORKFLOWS. Lumbar punctures are commonly done for diagnostic purposes, but can also sometimes be done for therapeutic purposes. But as it turns out, the LP is not just one workflow - It's actually four different workflows : In each of these scenarios, there are different clinical specialties using the LP, commonly for different purposes. Lumbar puncture is performed by inserting the needle between the fourth and fifth lumbar vertabrae (L4-L5). This location is used because the spinal cord stops near L2, and a needle introduced below this level will miss the cord Lumbar puncture test values that fall below or above normal range can be indicative of infection or illness. It is important to note that results may vary depending on the laboratory used. A buildup of cerebrospinal fluid may cause pressure on the brain and severe headaches

ANATOMY LECTURE 2 at Touro University (NV) - StudyBlue

Brain & Spine Foundation Lumbar punctur

Purpose: Lumbar Puncture (LP) is widely used for spinal and epidural anesthesia or Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling procedures. As this procedure is highly complicated and needs high experience to be performed correctly, it is necessary to teach this skill to the physicians. Considering the limitation of number of usage o A lumbar myelogram is a procedure that involves a lumbar puncture and the subsequent injection of a contrast material. Contrast materials are used to light up an area of the body for the purpose of imaging. Imaging scans can then be used to produce a higher resolution image of the area. Furthermore, any obstruction, damage or abnormal growth.

Lumbar Puncture (LP) - OSCE guide Geeky Medic

The purpose of this course is to improve feedback, clinical teaching, and assessment of clinical skills. The objectives for this module are that after you actively engage in the activities, you will be able to 1: Understand the importance of feedback and the barriers to providing feedback. 2: Provide effective feedback to learners Purpose of study Ultrasound (US) for lumbar puncture has seen the most success in obese patients and in patients with difficult to palpate landmarks. We aimed to elucidate the advantage of the use of routine US for performing lumbar punctures over the traditional landmark method. Study design This was a prospective study with consecutive sampling with a sample size of convenience The researchers found that lumbar puncture use increased from 163.3 to 203.4 procedures per 100,000 Medicare beneficiaries from 2004 to 2017 (overall rate, 190.3). The percentage of lumbar.

Anatomy of spine

Multiple Sclerosis Foundation - Keep Lumbar Puncture on

Myelography entails plain-film examination of the spine following intrathecal instillation of iodinated contrast media through either a lumbar puncture or a cervical puncture at the C1-C2 level, posterior to the spinal cord. Water-soluble, nonionic contrast agents are used exclusively. Using a tilt-table and fluoroscopy, the contrast is. Lumbar puncture for cerebrospinal fluid culture is recommended as part of the evaluation of febrile neonates one month and younger.11, 46, 47 The procedure is not recommended in infants older than.

Lumbar Puncture: Background, Indications, Contraindication

Approximately 400,000 lumbar punctures (LPs) are performed in the United States annually for either diagnostic workup or therapeutic relief. 1 Lumbar punctures are increasingly being performed in the United States, with an estimated 97,000 LPs performed on Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries in 2011 alone, which is an increase of approximately 4,000 LPs in the same population from 1991. 2. Purpose -Lumbar Puncture. 1) obtain spinal fluid analyze for blood infection-tumor cells 2) measure pressure reading with manometer 3) administer drugs -intrathecally-brain -spinal cord. Position-lumbar puncture? 1) arched back 2) side lying 3) chin to chest. What should nurse inspect Lumbar puncture (LP) is a useful diagnostic tool in a wide spectrum of paediatric clinical situations. A common indication is to rule out a serious intracranial infection in a febrile child. Success rate can be optimised by proper positioning, appropriate technique and enhanced operator's skill in performing the procedure. The purpose of this review is to explore the indications and. The purpose of this study is to establish an optimized lumbar puncture management process on the basis of fully understanding of parents and children. An improved process consisting of painless lumbar puncture (LP) and comfortable LP will be established upon completion of this study The amount of protein in the cerebrospinal fluid is determined most commonly after lumbar puncture (spinal tap), but cisternal or ventricular punctures are also used. CSF protein offers information in the diagnosis of infection, malignancy, nerve cells inflammation and other conditions

Lumbar Puncture Encyclopedia

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Lumbar puncture (LP) may precipitate cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), but it is unclear if LP is deleterious in patients with CVT. We aimed to assess the safety of LP in the International Study on Cerebral Veins and Dural Sinus Thrombosis prospective cohort The SSEP is technically the most challenging study to perform, but is found to be abnormal in more than 80% of patients with definite MS. This study can help identify slowed conduction in the central sensory pathways, and help distinguish peripheral lesions from central ones. Visual Evoked Potentials A lumbar puncture, also known as an LP or spinal tap, is a procedure that doctors use to collect spinal fluid. During an LP, a needle is inserted between the bones of the lower back and into the spinal column. A small amount of spinal fluid is then extracted and the needle is withdrawn CT myelogram technique is a diagnostic technique that utilizes a contrast material and then uses X-rays to diagnose specific problems in the body. This imaging technique may be used for diagnosing various disorders of the spine. It could be performed to check for herniated discs, spondylosis, and arthritis, among other problems

Cerebral circulation & csf formationCamelBak Mil-Spec Crux™ 3L Lumbar Reservoir | U

Additionally, with a similar purpose, lumbar puncture and echo-encephalography are prescribed. Advertisement . When developing treatment tactics, it is important to consider the characteristics of the cause of the disease. For its establishment, MRI of the brain, enzyme immunoassay, blood culture, and other examination methods are used Purpose: Lumbar punctures (LP) are commonly performed in febrile infants to evaluate for meningitis. Prior studies demonstrate a positive association between LP success and the use of local anesthesia. Traditional methods of local anesthesia require injection or topical application, which may be painful and time consuming. Recent advances in needle-free jet injection may offer an alternative Lumbar puncture (LP) can confirm or exclude meningitis. CSF culture is the gold standard in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. More than 90% of cases of acute bacterial meningitis present with a CSF white cell count of more than 100 cells per μL. In immunocompromised patients, CSF white cell counts are often low Certainly, one of the most common procedures in the Ped ED is the lumbar puncture. We have discussed efforts to ensure that our first attempt is our best attempt: good positioning and analgesia are critical. We have also discussed how to deal with the result when the LP was traumatic.. Additionally, we have covered the complication of Post-LP Headaches

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